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观点:今天,让我们和全世界一起,纪念那些在战争中被侮辱被损害的女性

来源:贴心姐妹网   更新:2018-06-19 16:24:47   作者:关慧贞
观点:今天,让我们和全世界一起,纪念那些在战争中被侮辱被损害的女性

6月19日是「消除冲突中性暴力行为国际日(International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict)」。

10年前,联合国安理会正式宣佈,国际冲突中的性别暴力行为是战争策略的一种,严重威胁世界和平,应该予以严厉谴责。2015年,联合国大会宣佈,将每年6月19日设为「消除冲突中性暴力行为国际日」。设定这个纪念日的目的,是提高人们对消除武装冲突中性暴力行为的必要性的认识,纪念全球武装冲突中性暴力的受害者,安慰那些幸存者,并赞扬那些为消除这些反人类罪行而挺身而出、勇敢奉献甚至牺牲生命的人们。

性暴力指战争冲突中的强奸、性奴役、强迫卖淫、强迫怀孕、强迫堕胎、强迫绝育、强迫婚姻等行为。性暴力作为一种战争策略在近年才得到承认,但它的存在却由来已久。在人类历史中,大规模且系统化的性暴力作为权力和征服的手段一直长期存在,用来羞辱战争中的敌对方并打击对方的尊严。这种远非军事需要的暴力行为,让已然充满暴力的冲突更加残酷更加痛苦。

与战争性暴力有关的国际法,最早产生于1945年的远东二战军事法庭。在那次审判中,一些在南京大屠杀中因服从上级命令而实施强姦行为的战犯被判决有罪。在南京大屠杀中,2万至8万名中国女性惨遭强奸,大约30万名中国人被残忍杀害。 

1946年,远东国际法庭(东京法庭)和南京战争刑事法庭也确认了南京大屠杀的存在。1951年,旧金山和平协议签署,日本政府接受了东京法庭和其他刑事法庭的判决。也即,日本政府承认,南京大屠杀的确是历史事实。南京大屠杀的证据,包括受害者、加害者(日本军人)和西方目击者的讲述。事实上,一些在南京亲眼目睹了那场屠杀的西方人,将它描述为「人间地狱」。2015年,联合国教科文组织世界记忆名录(UNESCO Memory of Registry)收录了南京大屠杀的文档资料。

张纯如的著作《南京浩劫》(The Rape of Nanking)指出,因南京大屠杀而需要审判的人还有很多很多,但因为政治原因,正义被搁置一旁,许多加害者都逃脱了惩罚。纽伦堡审判之后,同盟国控制委员会将强奸列为反人类罪行的一种,但之后却没有任何战犯因强奸罪受到惩罚。不承认性暴力是一种政治行为和战争策略,或者不承认此类暴行的性别本质,不仅会阻碍人们对公平公正的追求,也让目前不容乐观的世界局势愈加恶化,并导致越来越多的女性和男性在全球的战争和冲突中遭遇强奸和性别暴力。

二战期间,中国、韩国、缅甸、印尼、菲律宾和亚洲其他沦陷地区大约有20万名女性被拐骗、绑架,并沦为「慰安妇」。性别暴力对她们的影响会持续好几代,包括心理创伤、人格羞辱、经济贫穷以及健康恶化。

我们现今所在的世界仍然充满冲突和武装对抗,无数人因为战争而失去生命。联合国承认,目前世界上有19个国家正经历战争,而性暴力在这些国家和地区尤其严重,包括:阿富汗、哥伦比亚、刚果、伊朗和缅甸。加拿大政府多次重申自己对人权和性别平等的承诺,要在加拿大和世界其他国家推动这些领域的改进。因此,牢记人类历史上大规模的性暴力并对其进行研究非常重要,以避免此类暴行在未来重演。前事不忘,后事之师。承认并牢记历史上的苦难,是我们走向疗癒和和平的必经之路。

正是出于对「历史别再重演」的渴望,我在2017年11月30日向加拿大政府呼吁,将每年12月13日设为「南京大屠杀纪念日」。时间飞逝,南京大屠杀的幸存者越来越少。我希望政府能够和我一起,在今年年内做成此事。南京大屠杀不应该是个「被遗忘的大屠杀」。性暴力的受害者不应该被遗忘。希望大家支持我的努力,到我的网站jennykwan.ndp.ca签名请愿。

作者关慧贞    温哥华东区国会议员 新民主党移民、难民、公民事务和多元文化评论员  

Opinion: " It's time for Canada to finally acknowledge the horror of the Nanjing Massacre"

 

June 19 marks the International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict.

Ten years ago, the UN Security Council officially recognized and condemned sexual violence in conflict as a tactic of war and an impediment to peacebuilding.

In 2015, as a response, the UN General Assembly proclaimed June 19 of each year the International Day for the Elimination of Sexual Violence in Conflict.  The intent of this proclamation is to raise awareness of the need to sexual violence in conflict, to honour the victims and survivors of sexual violence across the globe, to pay tribute to those who have lost their lives and those who continue to dedicate their lives towards the eradication of these crimes against humanity.”

While the prosecution of sexual violence (including rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy, forced abortion, enforced sterilization, and forced marriage) employed in conflict as a political act is a relatively recent phenomenon, its enactment is not.

Large-scale, systemic utilization of sexual violence has been used throughout history as intentional, deliberate tactics to assert power, dominance, and to dehumanize the opponent and attack their identity. This type of violence falls outside military needs and adds tremendous cruelty and suffering to already violent conflicts.

One of the first cases of international law dealing with sexual violence in conflict was the International Military Tribunal for the Far East WWII (1945). In the trial, several people were found guilty of rape on the basis of command responsibility during the Nanjing Massacre, where an estimated 20,000 to 80,000 Chinese women and girls were raped and some 300,000 people were killed.

Western eyewitnesses in Nanjing described the atrocities as “Hell on Earth”.

Iris Chang’s book, The Rape of Nanking, argues that many more people could have been tried for the atrocities in Nanjing, but justice was set aside for many perpetrators for political reasons. Rape was listed as a crime against humanity in the Allied Control Council Law in the Nuremberg Trials, but there were no prosecutions that followed from it.

The nonrecognition of sexual violence as a political act and tactic of war, and the nonrecognition of the gendered nature of such violence, hinder efforts to seek accountability and justice. This adds to the ongoing failures of peacekeepers and other authorities to protect women and men from rape and sexual violence during war and conflict worldwide.

Over the course of the Second World War, an estimated 200,000 women and girls from China, Korea, Burma, Indonesia, the Philippines, and other occupied territories in Asia were tricked, kidnapped, or coerced into working in brothels to serve as “comfort women”. 

The effects of sexual violence echo across generations, through trauma, stigma, poverty, and poor health. Today, the world we live in continues to be haunted by conflict, militarism, and the senseless loss of human lives through warfare.

The UN currently recognizes 19 countries in conflict where the sexual violence is especially problematic.

The government of Canada has repeatedly stated its commitment to advancing human rights and gender equality both at home and at the international level. It is therefore pertinent that large-scale acts of violence in history are remembered and studied so that atrocities in the past and present are not repeated.

It is only through the recognition and remembrance of historical wrongs that we can find healing and reconciliation.

In this spirit of “never again,” on November 30, 2017, I called on the government to establish December 13 of every year as Nanjing Massacre Commemorative Day.

 

As the years pass, there are not many surviving victims left. It is my hope that the government will work with me to get this done this year. 

The Nanjing Massacre should not be a "forgotten holocaust". 

Victims of sexual violence should not be forgotten.

I hope you can support my endeavour by signing my petition on my website at jennykwan.ndp.ca.

 

Jenny Kwan is the MP for Vancouver East and NDP critic for Immigration, Refugee and Citizenship, as well as the NDP critic for Multiculturalism.

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