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关于难民申请人的误解和事实

来源:贴心姐妹网   更新:2018-07-31 00:35:35   作者:OCASI

 

By Ontario Council of Agencies Serving Immigrants (OCASI)

非正常入境不是非法的

寻求庇护者(在加拿大使用难民申请人一词)拥有跨越边境并进入加拿大提出难民申请的合法权利。寻求庇护者正在入境口岸之间不定期地穿越 ,但这并非违法。加拿大和美国之间的安全第三国协议(2004年)要求加拿大将难民申请人送回美国,但有一些例外。 “安全第三国协定”仅适用于在过境点提出的难民申请。

美国对难民不安全 

安全第三国协议的前提是美国是一个对难民安全的国家。鉴于现任政府的反难民和反穆斯林政策和做法,我们认为美国目前不是难民申请人的安全之地。难民申请人在加拿大提出难民申请,是因为在美国他们害怕被驱逐回原籍国,在那里他们可能遭到某种形式的迫害或暴力

加拿大有国际义务

对于逃离迫害的人们,就算没有文件寻求庇护,过境也并不违法。 “世界人权宣言”(第14条)规定,人人有权在其他国家寻求和享受庇护以免受迫害。 1951年“联合国难民公约”规定,难民不应因非法入境或逗留而受到惩罚,不应该被遣返回他们面临生命或自由的严重威胁的国家。加拿大不可以向寻求庇护的人们封锁边境。

难民有权提出申诉

加拿大法律保护申请难民权利的权利,该法律以加拿大的国际义务为基础。加拿大最高法院裁定,“权利和自由宪章”保障难民申请人享有基本司法权利,以及口头审理其申诉的权利。这被称为‘辛格决定’(1985年4月4日)。

难民申请人不能排队等待

逃离迫害的人有权在抵达边境时提出难民申请。这是人们逃离迫害的唯一途径,而没有排队轮候的机会。提出申诉后,难民申请人可能需要等待数年才能进行听证,但逃避迫害的人不能被要求等待提出移民申请。

难民申请人不会拿走安大略省居民的服务 

难民申请人的医疗保健费用大部分由联邦政府承担。难民申请人没有资格获得省级医疗保健和许多其他省级服务。他们可以申请社会援助。住房费用由联邦,省和市政府共同承担。多伦多和许多周边城市早已面临住房挑战,远在目前难民申请人数量增加之前。将安大略省的住房危机归咎于难民申请人是错误的

难民申请人并没有滥用加拿大的慷慨

难民申请人在逃离迫害和寻求保护时经常冒着生命危险。根据加拿大的“权利和自由宪章”,加拿大有法律义务为难民提供保护并尊重他们的权利,所以这不仅是慷慨的问题。加拿大有着悠久的社会正义和人权传统。我们不应该进一步伤害社会中最脆弱的人群之一,也就是难民申请人。

IRREGULAR ENTRY IS NOT ILLEGAL

Asylum seekers (in Canada use the term refugee claimant) have the legal right to cross the border and enter Canada to make a refugee claim. Asylum seekers are crossing irregularly – between ports of entry - but that is not illegal. They are doing so because the Safe Third Country Agreement (2004) between Canada and the United States requires Canada to send refugee claimants back to the U.S., with a few exceptions. The Safe Third Country Agreement applies only to refugee claims made at border crossings.

U.S. IS NOT SAFE FOR REFUGEES

The Safe Third Country Agreement is based on the assumption that the U.S. is a safe country for refugees. We believe the U.S. is not currently a safe place for refugee claimants given the present administration's anti-refugee and anti-Muslim policies and practices. Refugee claimants are making a refugee claim in Canada because in the US they fear being deported back to their countries of origin where they may face persecution or violence in one form or another.

CANADA HAS INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS

It is not illegal for people to flee persecution or to cross borders without documents to seek asylum. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 14) states that everyone has the right to seek and enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. The 1951 UN Refugee Convention stated that refugees should not be penalized for their illegal entry or stay, and should not be returned to a country where they face serious threats to their life or freedom. Canada cannot close the border to people seeking refuge.

REFUGEES HAVE THE RIGHT TO MAKE A CLAIM

The right to make a refugee claim is protected in Canadian law which builds on Canada's international obligations. The Supreme Court of Canada has ruled that the Charter of Rights and Freedoms guarantees the rights of refugee claimants to fundamental justice, and the right to an oral hearing of their claim. This is known as the 'Singh Decision' (April 4, 1985)

THERE IS NO QUEUE FOR REFUGEE CLAIMANTS

People fleeing persecution have the legal right to make a refugee claim when they arrive at the border. This is the only process for people fleeing persecution and there is no queue. Having made a claim, refugee claimants may have to wait years to have their hearing. People fleeing persecution cannot be asked to wait and make an immigration application.

REFUGEE CLAIMANTS DON'T TAKE SERVICES AWAY FROM ONTARIANS

Healthcare costs for refugee claimants are for the most part covered by the federal government. Refugee claimants are not eligible for provincial healthcare and many other provincial services. They can apply for social assistance. Housing costs are shared between federal, provincial and municipal governments. Toronto and many of the surrounding municipalities had housing challenges long before the current increase of refugee claimant arrivals. It is wrong to blame refugee claimants for Ontario's housing crisis.

REFUGEE CLAIMANTS ARE NOT ABUSING CANADA'S GENEROSITY

Refugee claimants often risk their lives when they flee persecution and seek protection. Canada has a legal obligation to provide protection to refugees and to respect their rights under the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. It is not a matter of generosity. Canada has a history and strong tradition of social justice and human rights. We should not further victimize refugee claimants, who are among the most vulnerable in society.

RESOURCES

 

 

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