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“不应该允许有性别歧视行为的中国公司来加拿大经营”

—— 加拿大政府就可能的加中自由贸易协议进行的公众咨询报告中关于人权和性别平等的部分
来源:加拿大政府   更新:2017-11-15 14:16:18   作者:加拿大政府

4.b.xvii. Human Rights

The Government of Canada heard considerable interest from Canadians who expressed concerns regarding human rights violations by the Government of China and its respect for the rule of law. Stakeholders who raised these issues conveyed that human rights considerations must be at the centre of Canada’s engagement with China, rather than a marginal factor to be balanced against others.

Details of what we heard

  • Several stakeholders conveyed that Canada’s approach to trade agreements could be improved by the introduction of a comprehensive and independent human rights impact assessment process for all FTAs under consideration.
  • Stakeholders offered a number of specific suggestions with a view to helping ensure that human rights are upheld in a possible FTA with China. These suggestions included: clear language to ensure that FTA provisions cannot be interpreted in a manner inconsistent with human rights obligations; subjecting human rights provisions in the FTA to the agreement’s dispute settlement process; and, the option to opt-out of the FTA if it is determined that implementation of the agreement is inconsistent with Canadian values related to human rights.
  • Stakeholders also advocated for the inclusion of strong corporate accountability provisions in an eventual FTA with China, to ensure that Canadian businesses operating in China are nevertheless subject to Canadian human rights standards.
  • Several stakeholders raised concerns related to China’s domestic human rights record, specifically with regard to Tibet and other ethnic and religious minority groups, the respect for the freedoms of speech and assembly, and the treatment of political dissidents, journalists, and lawyers.
  • Some stakeholders expressed concern that a decision to negotiate an FTA could have a chilling effect on the Government of Canada’s willingness to raise sensitive issues related to human rights with China. These stakeholders were adamant that Canada’s ability and willingness to raise broach difficult issues with China should not be compromised.
  • Other stakeholders told us that Canada should not overburden any possible trade agreement with tangential issues (e.g., human rights) that could undermine the possibility of reaching an agreement.

4.b.xviii. Gender

As part of the Government of Canada’s Progressive Trade Agenda, the Government is interested in understanding how trade agreements can support women’s economic empowerment. During consultations on the possible FTA with China, the Government of Canada consulted Canadian female business leaders on a possible Canada-China FTA, and received several submissions touching on gender issues.

Input received demonstrates that Canadians want to ensure that Canada’s trade agenda helps to advance China’s respect for women’s rights and contribute to women’s economic empowerment. There are many ways in which China is currently perceived to limit economic opportunity for women  and any steps that a possible FTA might take towards facilitating access to finance, markets, training, or other prerequisites for entrepreneurship are seen as a useful part of overall efforts to help advance universal values, including respect for human rights, in China.

Details of what we heard

  • A Canada-China FTA “gender agenda” should be integrated and cross-cutting, i.e., reflected in each element of a potential agreement.
  • Canada should seek to obtain, as part of an FTA, specific commitments from China that would make a meaningful difference for women’s economic empowerment, whether in regard to access to finance or ICT services, promoting an increased number of women STEM workers, or enhancing protections for women and others against gender-related economic discrimination.
  • Chinese firms that have discriminatory practices should not be permitted to do business in Canada.
  • Although events/discussions focused on women and gender issues are welcome, this should not come at the expense of being invited to the “big table” where decisions will be made. There is a higher prospect for success through gender mainstreaming rather than separating women’s issues.
  • Chinese large private sector multinational firms have shown the ability to implement progressive labour and hiring practices, much more so than SOEs.
  • Canada and China are not that dissimilar when comparing the status of women in senior leadership ranks.
  • Stakeholders suggested that for a progressive trade agenda to be successful, it will be important to have more women on boards and senior management positions to effect change.
  • Advocacy from the PM on gender equality has been very valuable, and changes in the private sector have already been noted as a response to his example.

(Source:Public consultations on a possible Canada-China FTA

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