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性教育课程议题(二):各年级健康体育课程中“人体发展和性健康”部分的内容

来源:贴心姐妹网   更新:2015-02-25 14:16:28   作者:贴心姐妹网
 
1-12年级健康体育课程中“人体发展和性健康”部分的内容:
 
一年级
 
identify body parts, including genitalia (e.g., penis, testicles, vagina, vulva), using correct terminology.
 
二年级
 
outline the basic stages of human development (e.g., infant, child, adolescent, adult, older adult) and related bodily changes, and identify factors that are important for healthy growth and living throughout life.
 
三年级
 
describe how visible differences (e.g., skin, hair, and eye colour, facial features, body size and shape, physical aids or different physical abilities, clothing, possessions) and invisible differences (e.g., learning abilities, skills and talents, personal or cultural values and beliefs, gender identity, sexual orientation, family background, personal preferences, allergies and sensitivities) make each person unique, and identify ways of showing respect for differences in others.
 
四年级
 
describe the physical changes that occur in males and females at puberty (e.g., growth of body hair, breast development, changes in voice and body size, production of body odour, skin changes) and the emotional and social impacts that may result from these changes.
 
五年级
 
describe emotional and interpersonal stresses related to puberty (e.g., questions about changing bodies and feelings, adjusting to changing relationships, crushes and more intense feelings, conflicts between personal desires and cultural teachings and practices), and identify strategies that they can apply to manage stress, build resilience, and enhance their mental health and emotional wellbeing (e.g., being active, writing feelings in a journal, accessing information about their concerns, taking action on a concern, talking to a trusted peer or adult, breathing deeply, meditating, seeking cultural advice from elders) .
 
六年级
 
describe how they can build confidence and lay a foundation for healthy relationships by acquiring a clearer understanding of the physical, social, and emotional changes that occur during adolescence (e.g., physical: voice changes, skin changes, body growth; social: changing social relationships, increasing influence of peers; emotional: increased intensity of feelings, new interest in relationships with boys or girls, confusion and questions about changes) ;
assess the effects of stereotypes, including homophobia and assumptions regarding gender roles and expectations, sexual orientation, gender expression, race, ethnicity or culture, mental health, and abilities, on an individual’s self-concept, social inclusion, and relationships with others, and propose appropriate ways of responding to and changing assumptions and stereotypes .
 
七年级
 
explain the importance of having a shared understanding with a partner about the following: delaying sexual activity until they are older (e.g., choosing to abstain from any genital contact; choosing to abstain from having vaginal or anal intercourse; choosing to abstain from having oral-genital contact); the reasons for not engaging in sexual activity; the concept of consent and how consent is communicated; and, in general, the need to communicate clearly with each other when making decisions about sexual activity in the relationship;
identify common sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and describe their symptoms;
identify ways of preventing STIs, including HIV, and/or unintended pregnancy, such as delaying first intercourse and other sexual activities until a person is older and using condoms consistently if and when a person becomes sexually active.
 
八年级
 
identify and explain factors that can affect an individual’s decisions about sexual activity (e.g., previous thinking about reasons to wait, including making a choice to delay sexual activity and establishing personal limits; perceived personal readiness; peer pressure; desire; curiosity; self-concept; awareness and acceptance of gender identity and sexual orientation; physical or cognitive disabilities and possible associated assumptions; legal concerns; awareness of health risks, including risk of STIs and blood-borne infections; concerns about risk of pregnancy; use of alcohol or drugs; personal or family values; religious beliefs; cultural teachings; access to information; media messages), and identify sources of support regarding sexual health (e.g., a health professional [doctor, nurse, public health practitioner], a community elder, a teacher, a religious leader, a parent or other trusted adult, a reputable website) ;
demonstrate an understanding of gender identity (e.g., male, female, two-spirited, transgender, transsexual, intersex), gender expression, and sexual orientation (e.g., heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual), and identify factors that can help individuals of all identities and orientations develop a positive self-concept ;
demonstrate an understanding of aspects of sexual health and safety, including contraception and condom use for pregnancy and STI prevention, the concept of consent, and matters they need to consider and skills they need to use in order to make safe and healthy decisions about sexual activity (e.g., self-knowledge; abstinence; delaying first intercourse; establishing, discussing, and respecting boundaries; showing respect; need for additional information and support; safer sex and pleasure; communication, assertiveness, and refusal skills) ;
analyse the attractions and benefits associated with being in a relationship (e.g., support, understanding, camaraderie, pleasure), as well as the benefits, risks, and drawbacks, for themselves and others, of relationships involving different degrees of sexual intimacy (e.g., hurt when relationships end or trust is broken; in more sexually intimate relationships, risk of STIs and related risk to future fertility, unintended pregnancy, sexual harassment and exploitation; potential for dating violence) .
 
九年级
 
describe the relative effectiveness of various methods of preventing unintended pregnancy or sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV/AIDS (e.g., avoiding oral, vaginal, and anal intercourse; delaying first sexual intercourse; using protection, including barrier and hormonal methods, to prevent unintended pregnancy; using condoms and dental dams to protect against STIs), and identify sources of information and support (e.g., doctor, nurse practitioner, public health unit, parents, credible and accurate websites); demonstrate an understanding of factors (e.g., acceptance, stigma, culture, religion, media, stereotypes, homophobia, self-image, self-awareness) that can influence a person’s understanding of their gender identity (e.g., male, female, two-spirited, transgender, transsexual, intersex) and sexual orientation (e.g., heterosexual, gay, lesbian, bisexual), and identify sources of support for all students; 
demonstrate an understanding of the skills and strategies needed to build healthy social relationships (e.g., peer, school, family, work) and intimate relationships;
apply their knowledge of sexual health and safety, including a strong understanding of the concept of consent and sexual limits, and their decision-making skills to think in advanceabout their sexual health and sexuality.
 
十年级
 
describe factors that influence sexual decision making (e.g., personal values, having limits and being able to communicate them, being aware of and respecting the limits set by others, peer and family expectations, having physical and emotional desires, media messages, myths and norms related to sexual activity or safer sex practices, participation in activities such as substance use that impair judgement), and demonstrate an understanding of how to use decision-making and communication skills effectively to support choices related to responsible and healthy sexuality;
describe some common misconceptions about sexuality in our culture, and explain how these may cause harm to people and how they can be responded to critically and fairly; explain how being in an exclusive relationship with another person affects them and their relations with others (e.g., personal benefits such as learning about oneself, emotional comfort and security, sense of belonging; impact on peer relationships, family relationships, time management, homework, choice of activities; feelings and challenges involved in ending a relationship).
 
十一年级
 
describe how their understanding of factors that affect reproductive and sexual health (e.g., environmental factors, genetics, injuries, disabilities, hormonal levels, nutrition, substance use, sexually transmitted infections) and their knowledge of proactive health measures and supports (e.g., measures such as breast and testicular examinations, Pap tests, regular medical check-ups, stress management techniques, genetic testing; supports such as trusted adults, local clinics, a local public health unit, a nurse practitioner/doctor) can be applied to avoid or minimize illness;
describe how to use personal and interpersonal skills to deal with personally stressful situations or to help others deal with stressful situations (e.g., mental and physical illness, death of a family member, abusive relationships, understanding and accepting sexual orientation, separation/divorce, suicide, unemployment/underemployment, substance abuse);
describe factors that contribute to the stigmatization of mental illness (e.g., myths about the causes of mental illness; insensitive use of language; fear of violent, unpredictable, or embarrassing behaviour), and identify strategies that could be used to reduce stigma in their local community.
 
十二年级
 
demonstrate an understanding of how relationships develop through various stages, and describe the skills and strategies needed to maintain a satisfactory relationship as the
relationship evolves (e.g., communication and interpersonal skills, adaptive and coping skills, conflict resolution strategies);
analyse the portrayal of different relationships in the media (e.g., movies, song lyrics, television, print media, Internet) with respect to bias and stereotyping, and describe how individuals can take action to encourage more realistic and inclusive messaging.
 
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